What else you may find on this site, besides the videos below

  1. The home page, i.e. the entry to my Chen style taijiquan notepad
  2. Some web sources on Chen style taijiquan that you may find, or not, worthwhile
  3. Information on a few streams on Chen style taijiquan (other than the videos below)
  4. Information on other material (mainly books) on Chen style taijiquan
  5. Something on conduct and ethics of the Chen family
  6. A beginner's glossary for quick reference on Chen style taijiquan
  7. Some Chinese characters from the glossary
  8. A reference chart on Chen style lineage in case you are looking for teachers
  9. A thank you for visiting my page
  10. A disclaimer so you won't sue me when you break a leg

Kick With Heel, section IV, form 46, of the Chen taijiquan competition routine. Taken from Competition Routines for Four Styles Taijiquan, 1991, Beijing: People's Sport Publishing House of China, p.216, figure 231.

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Videos on Chen style taijiquan

If you happen to hit this site because you have become interested in learning a martial art and wonder if taijiquan qualifies, you may wish to get a feeling for what taijiquan martial power is supposed to "look like" by turning to a movie. Since there are very few movies featuring taijiquan, I have added three movies at the end of the list. Otherwise, with the exception of one competition video and some historical video tapes, all of the videos on this page are Chen style, and most are meant for instruction purposes.

Please bear in mind that there is no way of actually learning taijiquan from videos. You should always look for a qualified instructor. Videos, however, may be a supplement to your training, and should also be very interesting if you are not able to attend seminars or shows to watch the masters and grandmasters perform. (I find the comments of T'ai Chi Magazine quite reasonable. Make sure to obtain videos of masters or very good students, though, and not of mediocre practitioners.)

Year Title and content Min. Lang. Type
Year Abbreviations: de ... German; DVD ... digital video disc; en ... English; jp ... Japanese; lang. ... languages; min. ... total playing time in minutes; sub ... subtitles; VCD ... video compact disk; VHS ... video home system tape; zh ... Chinese. Min. Lang. Type
*** (Mainly) Chen style taijiquan videos *** *** ***
2007 Are you looking for a video product which contains all of the Chen style routines? One which may almost qualify is the double-DVD set by Chen Xiaowang called Quanxie Xinshang (Admire Boxing and Weapons) because it covers quite some ground: The first DVD contains the Old Frame's First Routine (18 min.), the 38 Form (10 min.), Double Sabre (4 min., incl. slow-motion replay), and the 19 Form (4 min.). The second DVD contains the New Frame's First Routine (19 min.), Single Sabre (3 min., incl. slow-motion replay), the New Frame's Second (Pao Chui) Routine (6 min.), Single Sword (5 min., incl. slow-motion replay), and Taiji Spear (6 min., incl. slow-motion replay). Each routine is briefly introduced as to its unique features by professional speakers in Chinese language, with Chinese and English subtitles. Both DVDs contain an identical introduction to Chen style taijiquan (4 min.) and to Chen Xiaowang (5 min.). The quality is excellent. However, this is not an instruction video. Changing camera angles, cuts, and an occasional zooming is likely to confuse you if you are a beginner, and you should better acquire an instruction video if you wish to use it to supplement your practice. There's no accounting for taste, but the video does correspond to current Chinese chic: All sorts of backgrounds (waterfalls, sunsets, grasslands, snowy mountains, ...you name it) are matted in interchangeably and continuously changing during all performances, except for Taiji Spear. (Westerners, unless of the esoteric or psychedelic sort, might be led to believe this was produced as a background video for a discotheque if it weren't for the soft guzheng [Chinese zither] music background.) The ISRC is CN-E22-07-315-00/V.G8(3/4), the publisher is Qilu Audio and Video Publishing House. [top] 113 zh DVD
2007 Supplement your practice with a set of four DVDs of grand master Chen Xiaowang that demonstrate the first routine of the old frame and which is probably one of the most comprehensive videos you can get on this routine. Chen Shi Lao Jia contains an introduction on taijiquan and Chen Xiaowang (8 min.), a summary of features of the first routine (2 min.) and a complete middle stance demonstration in front view, recorded with moving cameras and containing cuts and changes of perspective as well as changing background mattes (18 min.). In what follows, the routine is segmented into 4 sections which are each presented acording to the following pattern: A) Overview of the movements of the section, B) complete demonstration of the section, C) demonstration of each movement of the section (i. presentation of the movement, ii. explanation of the movement, iii. presentation of the movement). During the explanation of the movement, the presentation is halted (still) where appropriate in order to ensure that the spoken text (and the Chinese and English subtitles) match the state of the presentation (i.e. so the presentation does not move on while the last sub-movement is still being explained). During the presentation of the movements, the background mattes do not change. However, if you are a beginner, you should make sure you know your bearings (as conveyed by your instructor) because moving cameras and changing angles mean that you cannot easily deduce your own bearing based on the position of the camera (as on many other instructional videos where the camera basically remains in the same place throughout the presentation).The set closes with a repetition of the complete demonstration of the routine and a 15 min. presentation of the different levels of push hand training and selected applications. The ISRC is CN-E22-07-317-00/V.G8(1-4), the publisher is Qilu Audio and Video Publishing House. This set is a part of a Chen Xiaowang DVD series called Ancestral Chen-Style Taijiquan. [top] 215 zh, en DVD
2007 Also in the series on Ancestral Chen-Style Taijiquan, you will find a set on the single sword routine, i.e. Dan Jian. It also contains the introduction on taijiquan and Chen Xiaowang (8 min.). Then there is a summary of the origins and the characteristics of this routine (2 min.) and a forceful complete demonstration by the Grandmaster in front view (2 min.), again recorded with moving cameras and containing cuts and changes of perspective. On the normal speed presentation background mattes are changing. This is not the case for the slow presentation (3 min.), though. This routine is segmented into 6 sections. These are presented acording to the same pattern as for lao jia yi lu above. During the movement explanation parts, there are a few additional repetitions (unmatted) as required, though. Footwork is sometimes not visible when cameras close in, and occasionally the hands are not visible because the presentation is front view only. What is more disturbing, though, is that the magic of the chroma key cannot cope with the swiftness (and presumably light reflections) of the sword. I.e. the sword often disappears against the matted background. This is somewhat compensated for by adding unmatted pictures under each movement explanation. But it still means that you cannot see the sword on many occasions during the matted parts which are dominating the style. Also, the editors appear to sometimes have had difficulties in producing good stills, many of which are, in fact, slightly blurred and not always perfectly timed. This does not make this a bad video because the oral/ subtitled explanations of the movements and sub-movements are detailed and precise. The set closes with a repetition of the complete demonstration of the routine (normal and slow speeds), and there is a presentation of the different levels of push hand training and selected applications (15 min.). The publisher is Qilu Audio and Video Publishing House, and the ISRC is CN-E22-07-315-00/V.G8(1-2). [top] 107 zh, en DVD
2004 One of the best Chen style instructional videos I have ever watched is a VCD with 18th generation master Feng Zhiqiang, a renowned indoor student of Chen Fake and creator of the hunyuan style, on "The Second Set of Chen-Style Taijiquan", or Chen Shi Taijiquan Er Lu. For one, this VCD uses a professional speaker which is both more pleasant to the ear and better articulated (audible) than when you have the taijiquan professional speak. Secondly, it is a good mix of routine presentation and applications (which come too short on many video products that display routines). There is a short introduction with English subtitles on the specifics of the second routine (4 min.). This is followed by a list of the movements of the routine in Chinese and in English (3.5 min.) and a presentation of the routine by Feng Zhiqiang (high stance, front view) that is accompanied by Chinese music (9.5 min.). Then there is one hour of going thru the routine, movement-by-movement with mainly front and back views, and slow motions, freezed frames and repetitions as useful. The explanations for each movement are made in spoken Chinese while the presentation is made (and without English subtitles). The following 18 min. present the viewer with defense and attack applications of a selected 14 movements of the routine with Feng Zhiqiang flinging, toppling, striking a young student for illustration, including sufficient slow-motion replays that you need not stop and repeat any views. The VCD closes with a back view high stance presentation (so you can study by "following" Feng; 9 min.). This VCD's IRSC is CN-C02-98-0001-0/V.G8, and it has been produced by Beijing Culture Arts Audiovisual Publishers. [top] 106 zh VCD
2004 Chen Erhu is, apparently, a natural of Chenjiagou, a student of Wang Xi'an, and is running a training center in Wen County. He has produced videos which may be interesting if you are looking for practical examples of martial application of Chen style. One of these is called Chen Shi Taiji Sanshou Yu Qinna, Zhi Di Juezhao 1 (Chen Style Taji Sparring and Capture, Overwhelming Skills 1, as per the official English title). It provides a short introduction on taijiquan and the instructor (5 min.) and then presents 20 martial applications in succession. Each appication is first demonstrated, then explained, and then repeated each twice in front, side and back views. That takes roughly 3 min. per application. The applications themselves are given proper names while the link between the application and specific movements in the routines go unexplained. (I am not sure to which extent this is in line with Chen style practice.) In fact, you need to avoid the trap of thinking in terms of these applications ("When A strikes, with his right fist, towards B's head with his right leg up front...") in order to make the most of your Chen style training. But it may be interesting to watch for illustration purposes, or to present to people who are not convinced taijiquan has any martial application. (On the other hand, why should you bother with ignorants? You are practicing for your own benefit and need not entertain others.) The DVD has been produced by the People's Sports Video Publishing House and is being distributed by Guangzhou Beauty Culture Communications, IRSC is CN-M23-04-0119-0/V.G8. [top] 51 zh, en DVD
2003 Here is a nice VCD for beginning your studies of the first routine of the old frame of Chen style: Presented by 19th generation master Chen Xiaoxing, Chen Shi Taijiquan Lao Jia Yi Lu divides the long routine into sections disgestible for beginners. Following a complete demonstration of the routine in low stance front view (13 min.), 16 sections are presented in front view and low stance. Each section is repeated twice, then once with Chinese counts of the subsections of the individual movements, once with English counts, and then twice again. (For instruction, every movement can be disected into "submovements", and these are usually assigned numbers, e.g. 1-8 for "Bhudda's Warrior Attendant Pounds the Mortar", 1-4 for "Six Sealings Four Closings", 1-5 for "Single Whip". On this VCD, number counts signal the transition from one "submovement" to the next.) The 6 repetitions of each section are quite useful for training purposes because you need not constantly push the buttons of your control for repeating the section. For beginners the fact that the same perspective is maintained throughout is also less confusing than if you need to rethink from which angle you are looking all the time. Regarding those intervals where the front view conceals the position of the hands, a 90 degree angle view is inserted in a small window so you do not miss anyhting important. IRSC is CN-F42-03-0034-0/V.G, ISBN is 7-88059-355-7. The VCD is produced by Henan Electronic Audio-Video Publishing House. [top] 127 zh, en VCD
2002 As to weapons, one of the most demanding routines is the long handled broadsword called Chunqiu Da Dao, i.e. (spring and autumn) large broadsword, or qinglong yanyue dao, i.e. Qinglong crescent moon broadsword. Grandmaster Chen Zhenglei has recorded the routine for those who have reached the level, and strive to practice with a 3 kg training or 10 kg real helbard of this type. Following an intoduction on the history of Chen taijiquan and Chen Zhenglei (6.5 min.), and a complete view (3 min.) plus general explanations (3 min.), the routine is being introduced in 5 sections (10 min, 10 min., 8.5 min., 10 min., 14 min.). Each section is once fully displayed before and once after the single movements. The single movements are presented some 5 times each, including explanations and slow motion. The VCD closes with a final view of the whole routine (3 min.). All demonstrations are front view presentations. The VCD is part of a collection on Chinese martial arts produced by Guangzhou Beauty Culture Communication Co. Ltd. The ISRC is CN-M23-02-0010-0/V.G8. [top] 71 zh VCD
2002 Very long weapons are not very practical (unless you need to fight against walled cities or people on horseback or carriages). But they can be very useful for developing martial power if used correctly during training. Chen style practice may resort to long staffs, and Chen Zhenglei has produced a video on their usage called Taiji Shisan Gan (Taiji Thirteen Staff routine). There is an intoduction on the history of Chen taijiquan and Chen Zhenglei (6.5 min.), one complete view (1.5 min.) and general introduction (2.5 min.). The routine is divided into 3 sections which are presented completely first, and then in (repeated) single movements; and followed by explanations of main points of practice (5 min, 4 min., 4.5 min.). In closing, there are two more repetitions of the routine (3.5 min.). Finally, there is a very powerful presentation of xin jia yi lu by Chen Zhenglei (14 min.). The VCD is part of a collection on Chinese martial arts produced by Guangzhou Beauty Culture Communication Co. Ltd. The ISRC is CN-M23-02-0011-0/V.G8. [top] 42 zh VCD
2002 If you have not yet decided what style suits you best or wish to compare the different styles of taijiquan with each other, a set of, as understand, 4 VCDs with recordings of the presentations made by representatives of different styles at the China Zhuhai International Taijiquan Exchange Meeting may be a good choice for you. Under the motto "Famous Experts Performance Exhibition - Famous Experts Coaching" Zhongguo Zhuhai Guoji Taijiquan Jiaoliu Dahui - Taiji Mingjia Biaoyan provides you with a total of 35 performances in competition duration (i.e. mostly somewhere around 5-6 min. length). The performers are classified according to the following (exhibition) categories: Chen style, Wu (Jianquan) style, Wu (Yuxiang) style, Popular Wushu, State Routine, Hong Kong, Macau, Yang style, Wudang, Sun style, and Zhaobao. Chen style performers, all found on the first of the 4 VCDs, are Chen Zhenglei (5 min.), Wang Xi'an (6 min.), Ma Hong (9 min.), Zhang Zhijun (4 min.); and arguably also Wang Erping (3 min.) and Wu Dong (3 min.) under the Chinese State Routine, as well as Li Wenkuan (4 min.) from Macau. The recordings are professional camera recordings from an indoor gymnasium with cuts (switching cameras) and usually keep the performers face visible (i.e. you do not see the back of the performers). It is part of the martial arts collection produced by Guangzhou Beauty Culture Communication Co. Ltd. The recording code is CN-G08-02-0309-0/V.G8, ISBN is 7-88577-333-7. There is no spoken text or any sound from the performance itself, only soft background music. [top] 232 zh VCD
1998 The internalization of taijiquan principles is probably best developed by reeling silk exercises. Grandmaster Chen Xiaowang has produced tapes which display such exercises. Chan Si Gong - Internal Spiral Energy, Part 1 introduces the practicioner to a first set of exercises. There is a short 4 min. introduction on the history of taijiquan, followed by general explanations of purpose and usage of chan si gong exercises by Chen Xiaowang (8 min.). Then the first set is demonstrated once for a first view (12 min., one part in front view, another in side view), and then slowly (side view) with detailed explanations of hand positions, flow of qi, shift of weight, etc. (28 min.). The slow part is quite suitable for following. If you take a cinematographic point of view concerning your tapes, you will not like the tape for a number of reasons. Personally, I am very impressed with Chen Xiaowang's didactic skill in a language (English) he is not fully proficient in, and I would not want to miss it for its valuable content. It may be obtained from Chen Xiaowang, 18 Sluman Street, West Ryde, NSW 2114 Australia, and, I presume, his students, e.g. WCTAG. [top] 58 en VHS
1998 The second silk reeling exercise tape of Chen Xiaowang, Chan Si Gong - Internal Spiral Energy, Part 2 displays set no.2 and contains three demonstrations: A first view of the second set (11 min., front view), a view with detailed explanations of hand positions, flow of qi, shift of weight, etc. (17 min., mainly front view) which is suitable for following, and a view of the first and second sets of exercise together (22 min.). This is followed by a short section about Chen Xiaowang (3 min.). Quality of the takes is better than for Part 1. Available from Chen Xiaowang, 18 Sluman Street, West Ryde, NSW 2114 Australia, and, I presume, his students, e.g. WCTAG. [top] 59 en VHS
1998 The first you should normally learn, when you follow the traditional route of acquiring Chen taijiquan skills, is the old frame's first routine. Grandmaster Chen Xiaowang is one of the four major standard bearers of the style and therefore is one of the four "ultimate" teachers to follow. His Chen Style Taijiquan Laojia - Old Frame Part 1 is the first tape in a three-tape series which introduces the routine step by step. The first tape begins with an introduction to Chen Xiaowang's video tape series (3 min.), an introduction to Chen style taijiquan and to Chen Xiaowang (4 min.), and two presentations of the whole routine: a) in middle stance front view (12 min., with some general spoken information in the background) and b) middle-low stance back view (10 min., with background music). Then, there is a written (Chinese characters, Chinese pinyin, English) and oral presentation of the names of the different movements of the first part, followed by a complete presentation of this part in front view (3 min.). The rest of the tape presents movements 1-18 (= Part 1) of the routine (29 min.). Each movement is demonstrated (usually in succession with 1-5 other movements) from 4 different horizontal angles. These demonstrations are repeated one after another on the tape so you do not need to constantly wind backward all the time if you want to study a specific sequence. Also, swift movements (as jumps, kicks, fajing) are slowed down for a better view. Quality is good. The tape may be obtained from Chen Xiaowang, 18 Sluman Street, West Ryde, NSW 2114 Australia, and, I presume, his students, e.g. WCTAG. [top] 62 en VHS
1998 Chen Xiaowang's Chen Style Taijiquan Laojia - Old Frame Part 2 is the second tape in the three-tape series which introduces this routine step by step. The first tape begins with an introduction to Chen Xiaowang (5 min.), followed by a written (Chinese characters, Chinese pinyin, English) and oral presentation of the names of the different movements of the second part. Thereafter, movements 19-38 (= Part 2) of the routine are being presented (30 min.). As on the first tape of the series, each movement or sequence is demonstrated from 4 different horizontal angles repeated one after another and quick movements are slowed down for better view. The tape closes with a slow presentation of the complete routine in middle-high stance front view (17 min., background music). Quality is good. The tape may be obtained from Chen Xiaowang, 18 Sluman Street, West Ryde, NSW 2114 Australia, and, I presume, his students, e.g. WCTAG. [top] 54 en VHS
1998 As opposed to what you may think, Chen Xiaowang's Chen Style Taijiquan Laojia - Old Frame Part 3 video tape not only includes the third, but also the fourth and last part of the routine. This third tape of the series begins with a written (Chinese characters, Chinese pinyin, English) and oral presentation of the names of the different movements of the third part of the routine. Then, movements 39-55 (= Part 3) are being presented (21 min.) followed by a complete demonstration of the third part (3 min.). Finally, you get the written and oral presentation of the names of the different movements of the fourth part of the routine, followed by the demonstrations of movements 56-75 (= Part 4, 18 min.), followed by a complete demonstration of the fourth part (4 min.). As on the first and second tapes of the series, each movement or sequence is demonstrated from 4 different horizontal angles repeated one after another and quick movements are slowed down for better view. Quality is good. The tape may be obtained from Chen Xiaowang, 18 Sluman Street, West Ryde, NSW 2114 Australia, and, I presume, his students, e.g. WCTAG. [top] 53 en VHS
1998 Chen Style Taijiquan - 19 Movement Short Form has been produced by Chen Xiaowang, and contains exactly what the title says, plus an introduction of about 5 min. on the history of taijiquan and on Chen Xiaowang, and some 4 min. at the end about Chen Xiaowang's work in disseminating Chen style taijiquan. Demonstration work is very complete, i.e. with front, back, and both side views, and high, middle and low stances. With its nice introduction on the art itself, and the 19 Form performed, it seems a perfect "beginner's kit". Quality is good. You may obtain the tape from Chen Xiaowang, 18 Sluman Street, West Ryde, NSW 2114, Australia, and certainly from a number of his students. [top] 58 en, (zh) VHS
1997 If you have mastered the first routine and are beginning to study the second one, or "cannon fist", you may want to turn to another fine tape by Master Ren Guangyi to supplement your studies. His Lao Jia Er Lu contains a 6 minute introductory note while the routine is being presented once in real-time and then in slow motion (front view, 3.5 min/ 6.5 min.); a complete presentation of the routine (front, left, right view; 28 min.) with names of each movement displayed in Chinese, pinyin transcription, and English, plus a short note on the shift in weight; and finally a repetition of the first real-time and slow motion front views. Quality is good and the different views of the movements are fluently blended with one another. The tape may be obtained from Ren Guangyi, 66 N. Middletown Rd., B2, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA. [top] 55 en, zh sub VHS
1997 Tai Chi Chuan - Vollendete Kampfkunst aus China has been produced by Radio Free Berlin (SFB), and directed by Ludger Pfanz. It is a nice introductory film to taijiquan that explains the context in which it has grown and continues to exist. Reference is made to current practice at Chenjiagou, shaolinquan, application in Chinese opera, and daily usage. It includes interviews with and demonstrations by Chen Xiaowang, Chen Guizhen, Shen Xijing, Jan Silberstorff, and Ren Farong of the daoist temple at Louguantai. Quality is very good. There is a German description of the making of the film on the webpages of WCTAG. It may be ordered at WCTAG, Rendsburgerstrasse 14, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. [top] 44 de VHS
1997 Tai Ji Quan - Chen Style - Handform has been produced by WCTAG. Jan Silberstorff demonstrates lao jia yi lu. There is a front view and a back view (each about 34 min. long), 21 min. depicting the different particular movements, and a short intro. If you are not a total beginner, you do not need to understand German to make use of this tape since there is no talking. The names of the movements come in German subtitles while being performed in the section depicting the different movements (which also has slow motion replays of fajing movements). Quality is good. To be ordered at WCTAG, Rendsburgerstrasse 14, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. [top] 97 de sub VHS
1997? Taiji and Shaolin Quan - The Fighting Arts of Henan Province actually assembles 3 seperate sequences on Henan province and its culture (19 min.), the Shaolin temple and its traditional boxing system (11 min.), and on Grandmaster Chen Xiaowang and training scenes from Chenjiagou (11 min.). The latter sequence is worthwhile because it shows powerful Chen Xiaowang in motion (both routine demonstration and tui shou). Quality is medium. It can be ordered with WCTAG, Rendsburgerstrasse 14, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. [top] 40 en VHS
1996 There is a demonstration of The Chen Style Tai Chi Sword and Five Methods of Push Hands on a tape by Master Ren Guangyi. First, you are introduced to the single straight sword form in Chinese and English while it is being presented once (front view), then to the hand forms for the sword, and finally the whole form is presented movement by movement (front, left and right side views, 29 min.). The complete front view is presented once more, followed by a 27 min. presentation of push hands (single hand, curving flowers, stationary stance, moving stance, big pull, and flower pattern stance). There are English commentaries to each movement. Jose Figueroa assists Ren Guangyi in the push hand demonstrations. Quality is very good. Buy the tape from Ren Guangyi, 66 Middletown Road, Apt. B2, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA. [top] 60 en VHS
1996 Chen Taijiquan Broadsword and 5 Levels of Push Hands Demonstration is similar to the straight sword tape below. The video first gives a short Chinese and English introduction while the form is presented twice in front view (normal and slow speed), and then proceeds with the demonstation of each movement (14 min., front and two side views). The front view is repeated in fast and slow speed, and then there are 24 min. of push hand demonstrations. Here, Stephan Berwick assists Ren Guangyi. Of the total running time some 7 min. belong to the trailer, quality is very good. The tape may be obtained from Ren Guangyi, 66 Middletown Road, Apt. B2, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA. [top] 59 en, zh VHS
1996 Master Ren Guangyi demonstrates Push Hand Techniques on Video # 2 of his Chen Style Taijiquan video series produced with ESPY-TV. The tape displays 5 seperate levels of tui shou exercises (dan tui sao and huang qua, ding bu, hua ba, da lu, and huang jiao bu), continuous practice (levels 1-5), applications, and free style throws; each about 3 min. in length and with views from two sides. Quality is very good. The tape may be obtained from Ren Guangyi, 66 Middletown Road, Apt. B2, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA. [top] 31 en VHS
1996 Chen Zhenglei has produced a video recording called Yang Sheng Gong (Health Preserving Skills) which provides you with a good overview of the different exercises used in the Chen style system for warming and loosening up the body, building inner strength, and training the application of taiji principles in your movements. Following an introduction of ca. 2 min., there are four sections: (I) relaxation (14 min., 11 exercises), (II) reeling silk skills (10 min., 5 exercises), (III) development of inner strength (26 min., 6 exercises including standing post), and (IV) the 18 Form (4.5 min., front view). Each section contains explanatory notes by Chen Zhenglei. A DVD with English translation is available as well, i.e. combined with Xie Taolu Xinshang (see below) on a single DVD. The recording is part of a collection on Chinese martial arts produced by Guangzhou Beauty Culture Communication Co. Ltd. The ISRC is CN-M23-96-306-00/V.G8. [top] 57 zh VCD
1996 Another production by Chen Zhenglei is Xie Taolu Xinshang (Enjoy Weapons and Routines). It provides a front view demonstration of five different routines. As the title suggests, it is meant more for appreciation of masterful performance than for instruction since there is no explanation or repetition of sequences as one would expect in instructional tapes. Durations are as follows: (I) lao jia yi lu (14 min.), (II) lao jia er lu (5 min.), (III) single sword (4 min.), (IV) single sabre (1 min.), (V) 18 Form (4 min.), and (VI) push hands (15 min.). There is also a DVD, i.e. jointly with Yang Sheng Gong (see above) on a single disk (with a total duration of 103 min.), which provides English translation and subtitles. Chinese subtitles are available in both traditional and simplified characters. This recording is part of a collection on Chinese martial arts produced by Guangzhou Beauty Culture Communication Co. Ltd. The ISRC is CN-M23-96-307-00/V.G8. [top] 46 zh VCD
1995 Master Ren Guangyi demonstrates 38 Form Applications on a tape produced with ESPY-TV. The video first shows the 38 Form created by Chen Xiaowang (front view, 8 min.) - accompanied by an instructive introductory text on Chen taijiquan, and then proceeds with usually one (and sometimes more) self-defense application per movement. There are views from different sides and with different speeds. Stephan Berwick assists Ren Guangyi in the demonstrations. Quality is very good. The tape may be obtained from Ren Guangyi, 66 Middletown Road, Apt. B2, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA. [top] 25 en, zh? VHS
1995 Master Ren Guangyi has demonstrated Lao Jia Yi Lu in an instructional video tape. First, following a short introduction, the routine is presented completely (front view, low stance; 10 min.). Then each of the 75 movements is presented from three sides (front, left, right; 35 min.), and names are displayed in Chinese, pinyin transcription, and English. In the end, the whole routine is repeated once more. Quality is good; the different views of the movements are fluently blended with one another, i.e. the making is more professional than other instructional videos I have seen. It may be obtained from Ren Guangyi, 66 N. Middletown Rd., B2, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA. [top] 59 en, zh VHS
1994 If you are looking for the optimal taijiquan teachers, Ma Hong, one of Chen Zhaokui's indoor students, is bound to be among them. Chen Style Tai Chi Form 1 Part 1 ("Chenshi Taijiquan Di Yi Lu") is a real course to follow. Following a short general introduction (2 min.), Ma Hong presents the complete new style routine in front view first (11 min., Chinese music background) before he goes into the details with an assistant. While you see Ma Hong's front, the assistant provides the back view at the same time. Thus, you have the benefit of seeing both sides simultaneously which is sometimes difficult when you are following in a class and there are no mirrors in front of the teacher. Following the presentation of each single movement, there is repetition and discussion, and Ma Hong also corrects the position of the assistant for clarity. Movements presented before, are skipped later in the tape. Part 1 ends with movement no.32: Gao tan ma. Quality is good. It is possible to order the tape with Master Xu Guoming (George Xu), 4309 Lincoln Way, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA. [top] 90 zh VHS
1994 The second part of the first routine of the new style comes on a tape labeled Chen Style Tai Chi Form 1 Part 2 (second part of "Chenshi Taijiquan Di Yi Lu"). The structure is the same as on the recording of part 1 with Ma Hong and one assistant presenting indoors. It begins with movement no.33 (You ca jiao - Rub the Right Foot) and takes you all the way to the end. Movements presented before are skipped. There is no presentation of the complete routine as on the tape for part 1. Quality is good. You may order the tape with Master Xu Guoming (George Xu), 4309 Lincoln Way, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA. [top] 58 zh VHS
1994 Push Hand and Power Training, or rather "Tuishou Jiqiao Ji Gongli Xunlian" (Push Hand Skill and Efficiency Training - or: Drills), is one of the tapes in Master Ma Hong's Training Series for Chen style taijiquan. It is for advance practicioners who want to go into push hand competitions or anyone who wishes to further build their strength and skill. Ha Hong goes into considerable detail concerning push hand exercises with over 20 different exercises presented and discussed (69 min.). The rest of the tape is devoted to power training and presents diverse methods, including exercises with utensils such as short staff, long staff, ball, and drums (34 min.). Quality is good. It is possible to order the tape with Master Xu Guoming (George Xu), 4309 Lincoln Way, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA. [top] 103 zh VHS
1994 Another tape in Master Ma Hong's Training Series for Chen style taijiquan introduces you to the martial applications of xin jia yi lu. It begins with a front view outdoor presentation of the complete routine (14 min.; picture quality modest). Thereafter, martial applications are being explained indoors (73 min.; good quality) with two assistants who need to bear the tumbling and the joint locking. Colors and lighting are very well selected so the images do not blur: Ma Hong wears white, his assistants red and blue, and the background is dark (as on a theater stage). Twenty- four movements of the routine's first part are covered, a few of them in succession (i.e. 2-3 movements following each other). The tape is called Chen Style Tai Ji Usage Form 1 Part 1, or rather "Danshi Dongzuo Ji Shizhan Yongfa" (Single Pattern Movements and Actual Combat Usage). You may order the tape with Master Xu Guoming, 4309 Lincoln Way, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA. [top] 92 zh VHS
1994 The second part of Chen Style Tai Ji Usage Form 1 Part 2, i.e. "Danshi Dongzuo Ji Shizhan Yongfa" (Single Pattern Movements and Actual Combat Usage), follows exactly the same pattern as the first tape. However, it does not provide a demonstration of the complete routine as the first part does. It begins with Gao tan ma's application (which is where the first tape cuts off), and takes you through another 27 movements of the routine. The applications which were already presented in the first tape (for such movements which are repeated throughout the routine), of course, are skipped to avoid duplication. In this second part, most of the applications are presented based on a succesion of 2-3 movements. Quality is identical with the first tape, and it can be ordered with Master Xu Guoming (George Xu), 4309 Lincoln Way, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA. [top] 69 zh VHS
1994, 1990 If you wish to compare different Chinese martial art (wushu, kungfu) styles with one another and do not have any previous knowledge, you may wish to turn to a video tape called Chinese Gongfu (Martial Art) which contains an excerpt of a performance by Chen Xiaowang. Unfortunately, it is the only performance which has been cut short on a selection which contains a total of 35 performances from the late 1980s with top competitors at Chinese national level. Chen Xiaowang's presentation is cut off just in the middle of the first fajing movement of xinjia yilu and lasts 2 min. and 10 sec. Most other performances are actually shorter but also can be completed in this short time span. The tape displays mizuquan, changquan, fanziquan, nanquan, ditangquan, xingyiquan, tongbeiquan, piquaquan, zhaquan; mantis, eagle claw, monkey, drunkard, eight trigrams boxing; and diverse weapon routines. Also, and unusual in the West, you will find female competitors performing at par with male competitors, including in weapon routines as long-handled sabre, double hooks, three-sectional staff, Emei sting, etc. Quality is good. I believe it may be obtained from the same source as Chen Xiaosing's tape below. [top] 48 en VHS
1991 Master Xu Guoming (George Xu) provides an introduction to Chin-Na (grabbing and joint locking) techniques - which are very prominent in Chen style taijiquan - on Vol. XVIII of the China's Living Treasures video series. The tape starts out with basic exercises (with long chop sticks; 5 min.) and an explanation of principles, continues by going thru different movements of lao jia yi lu while demonstrating selected qin na applications (32 min.). It closes with an elaboration and then short summary of main points to remember (22 min.). Master Xu stresses the different applications of the same movement, thereby displaying the incredible richness of the form. Quality is good (sound recorded outdoors). The tape may be obtained from One Hand Video, PO Box 185, Mamaroneck, NY 10543-0185, USA. [top] 61 en VHS
1991/ 1992? Master Zhang Xuexin, a senior student of Feng Zhiqiang, demonstrates Chan Ssu Chin, i.e. silk reeling training exercises, on Vol. XV of the China's Living Treasures video series. Exercises on this tape (a total of 45 min.) begin with the head and end with the feet (although all originate from the waist, of course). The demonstration closes with one short martial art applications of two exercises. Quality is good. The tape may be obtained from One Hand Video, PO Box 185, Mamaroneck, NY 10543-0185, USA. [top] 55 en VHS
199? Spirit of Chen Style Taiji Quan has been produced by INBI of Russia. While the first section of the film (11 min.) merely assembles sequences from other videos, as, e.g. Tai Chi Chuan - Vollendete Kampfkunst aus China, and Taiji and Shaolin Quan - The Fighting Arts of Henan Province, the rest is devoted to presenting impressions from Chenjiagou taijiquan competitions. It contains a number of barehand, sword, and ball competition routines by renowned grandmasters as Chen Xiaowang (2 x barehand - 2 min. and 1.5 min. plus fajing encores; as well as spear and guan dao) , Chen Zhenglei (barehand 2 min.), Wang Xi'an (barehand 5.5 min.), and others which were mostly taken from the right side. There is also an amusing sequence where Chen Xiaowang performs the sword routine with an umbrella (1 min.), and various views of training sessions with Chen Xiaowang (7 min.). Finally, the tape shows scenes from Chenjiagou tui shou competitions (6 min.) where INBI members apparently landed a first place in one of the groupings of the year concerned. The images are accompanied by Chinese pop music which you may turn down if it does not meet your disposition since there are no spoken words. Total running time is 62 min. (including a 5 min. advertisement on the Dao Camp 1999 in Slovenia) and quality is medium. I am not sure about the colors: The images looked black and white to me on Pal and NSTC, but Russia may use a different standard. [top] 62 en VHS
19?? There is a beautiful performance of the first form by the late Gu Liuxin (ca. 7 min.), some nice push hand scenes between Gu Liuxin and Tao Renxiang (ca. 2 min.), and demonstrations of sticky long staff training by Gu Liuxin and Zhang Yu (ca. 1 min.) on Video Tape One of Master Tong Yausun's Rare Historical Videos of the Great Masters of China collection. There are nice performances of masters of the other 4 main schools also. Tape quality is good; the material is historical, and taken from black and white film without sound. You will not mind the expectable defects in the quality of the images, though, as the performances easily make up for that. The tape may be obtained from Master Tong Yausun. [top] 64 (en) VHS
19?? Video Tape Four of Master Tong Yausun's Rare Historical Videos of the Great Masters of China collection displays a Chen style sword play performance of Master He Bingquan in front and back views (each 3 min.). There are also two excellent sword duets and another sword play of other schools. Total running time is 14 min. Tape quality is good; the sword duets' material is taken from black and white film, the sword plays were recorded on video; there is no sound. You may order the tape with Master Tong Yausun. [top] 14 (en) VHS
19?? There is a Chinese video tape by Feng Zhiqiang on 24 Movements & Push Hand Techniques with some sections summarily subtitled in English, and with Chinese and English titles displayed for each section. His 24 movements form is first presented with a group (front view), then by Feng Zhiqiang alone: once in front view, then movement by movement (with extensive commentary), and then in back view. Some five attack and defense applications are also included in this presentation (total length 55 min.). The second part (a total of 48 min.) contains five push hand sections: a short introduction, 12 exercises for single-hand pushing (including elbow and shoulder pressing, hip and knee strikes, etc.), 9 exercises for two-hand pushing, a few solo exercises, and 12 free sparring techniques. Quality is good. You may obtain the tape with Master Tong Yausun. [top] 103 zh/ sub, en/ sub VHS
19?? If you are ready for pao chui or cannon fist, i.e. the second barehand routine of the old frame of Chen style, you may want to turn to a tape by Grandmaster Feng Zhiqiang called Chen Style Taijiquan - Series II. The spoken commentary is in Chinese throughout the tape, but there are some English subtitles for the general introduction, and each movement is listed in Chinese and English. After a general introduction of 4 min., the list of movements are displayed in both languages. The form is first presented in front view (9 min.), then movement by movement (61 min., front and back views, extensive commentary). This is followed by a demonstration of selected martial applications of 14 movements (18 min.). The tape ends with a back view demonstration of the whole routine (motto: "follow me", 9 min.). The quality is good. The tape may be purchased with Master Tong Yausun. [top] 109 zh, en sub VHS
19?? If you are interested in an overview of a number of weapon routines of Chen style taijiquan on one single tape, you may want to turn to demonstrations by Chen Quanzhong called Chen Style Tai Chi Weapons Form. This video contains presentations of the guan dao (Guan's long-handled saber, also frequently translated as helbard; 14 min.), qiang (spear; 20 min.), dan dao (sabre; 6 min.), and jian (sword; 13 min.) routines. Each section commences with general explanations of the weapon and the particularities of the routine along with some first views. Then the whole routine is presented movement by movement from one angle and at normal speed. And finally the names of the movements of the routine are listed. The tape closes with a few informations on Chen Quanzhong and the American Chen Style Tai Chi Association which is also where you can order the tape: P.O. Box 5026, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33310-5026, USA. Tape quality is moderate. [top] 59 en VHS
19?? Chen Xiao Sing has recorded a presentation of Tai Chi Chuan, Chen Style Traditional, Route One which contains lao jia yi lu. First, there is a front view of the whole routine and, I believe, general explanations (10 min.). This is followed by a presentation of each movement (45 min.) with, I presume, specific explanations for each movement. Some 10 of these movements are repeated from different angles and in slow motion. Language is Cantonese Chinese (from what I am able to perceive), quality is very good. You may obtain it in bookstores in Hong Kong (this is where I saw it, at least) or directly from Video Learning, Block B, 1/F, Shun King Building, 33-35 Takuling Road, Kowloon City, Kowloon. [top] 55 en VHS, VCD
???? It's generally not easy to come by recordings of performances of Wang Xi'an although he is one of the four genuine standard bearers of Chen style taijiquan. The Tokio Broadcasting System (TBS-V) has recorded some material presented as Chen Shi Taijiquan Lao Jia Yi Lu that apparently contains sessions which Wang Xi'an conducted in Japan. Included are several short interview sequences with Wang Xi'an which are dubbed in Japanese. There is an excellent demonstration of the first routine of the old frame in high stance front view (12 min.) which is followed by training workshop sequences which include his explanations of specific movements to the training class, and which are consecutively translated by an interpreter (to Japanese). Not all of the different movements are covered, but a selected stock is (total 19 min.). The recordings close with a sequence on gathering qi in Chen style taijiquan (1 min.), fajing (2 min.), tui shou (2 min.), as well as what apparently are preview shots from a further recording. The resolution is not very high. The producer apparently is some type of workshop (fuku shou dou). I came across this recording in Jiaozuo (Henan) in 2002. [top] 50 jp VCD
*** Taijiquan movies *** *** ***
1995 Li An's (Ang Lee's) classic Pushing Hands (Tui Shou) actually preceded his recent hit Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon (Wo Hu Zang Long) by half a decade. As with other martial art movies, performers are not masters of martial art, but (usually Chinese opera) actors who occasionally specialize in the martial sub-disciplines, as, for example, Cheng Long (Jackie Chan). Therefore, you will not find any taijiquan master performance here, but rather a (beautiful) story about a taijiquan master (performed by Sihung Lung) following his son to New York. The setting is perfect for a clash of cultures, namely traditional Chinese (in particular taijiquan) with North American or Western attitudes and life style. While the plot is fiction, taijiquan mastery is presented in a way which comes close to reality. Emphasis is also, and correctly, placed on the natural link taijiquan establishes between martial art and healing. Besides Sihung Lung, the movie starrs Bo Z. Wang, Fanny de Luz, and Lai Wang. According to the cover, the movie is exclusively distributed by Image Entertainment. The ISRC is CN-K07-00-0795-00/V.J6. [top] 107 en/ sub, zh/ sub DVD
1983 A Chinese classic, Wudang, directed by Sun Sha and starring Lin Quan and Zhao Changjun, describes a common martial art theme: Evil hands hideously murder a renowned and honest martial artist, including some family members and friends. The daughter seeks to avenge his death, and climbs the Wudang mountains to improve her skills with the daoist priests. Following hard study, she descends the mountains and is rewarded by being able to subdue the responsible traitors. Besides this, ousting of the collaborators spurs revolt against Japanese occupation. The movie has been shot on real locations at Wudang (which at the time of production were more dilapidated than nowadays), and film tricks are not excessively used. On the whole, a martial arts movie which compares favorably with other productions of the early 1980s. I have watched the movie on German TV before, where it was called Die Tochter des Meisters (The Master's Daughter). Hence, I believe it should be available in other languages too. [top] ## zh VCD
199? There is a movie called Taiji Zhang Sanfeng in China which I have seen called Tai Chi elsewhere. It is starring, among others, Li Lianjie (Jet Lee) and Yang Ziqiong (Michelle Yeoh) and tells the story of two monks expelled from the Shaolin monastery. One of them recklessly pursues a career with the military. The other discovers daoist's principles for application in martial arts after turning crazy and being treated by a daoist priest. Subsequently he is called master Zhang Sanfeng and subdues the reckless former gongfu brother with his superior skills. There is a lot of bloodshed and quite a few film tricks. Thus, the strongest merit the movie may have is to establish for the average movie goer that taijiquan actually is a martial art. Practicioners of taijiquan also may find comfort in the fact that even a skilled martial arts actor as Li Lianjie obviously was not able to learn to adequately imitate taijiquan during the time it took to shoot the movie. The "taijiquan" displayed is quite a far shot from real taijiquan. The only real taijiquan you actually get to see is a group of daoists monks praticing Wudang Sanfeng taijiquan in the background while the credits are being displayed at the end of the movie. The plot also bears no relationship to the existing Zhang Sanfeng legend either. [top] 87 zh VCD


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湥⁤‽畦汬氮湥瑧㭨爊瑥牵湵獥慣数昨汵⹬畳獢牴湩⡧瑳牡ⱴ攠摮⤩献汰瑩∨∠⸩潪湩∨∫㬩紊昊湵瑣潩敧敮慲整版晥愨慴Ⱨ琠浥汰瑡⥥੻瑡条栮敲㵦整灭慬整爮灥慬散✨䵟啙䱒❟‬楷摮睯氮捯瑡潩⹮牨晥爮灥慬散✨瑨灴⼺✯‬✧⤩爮灥慬散✨䵟呙呉䕌❟✬桃捥╫〲畯╴〲桴獩㈥吰楲潰╤〲敍扭牥㈥猰瑩Ⅵ⤧※紊瘊牡氠捹獯慟⁤‽牁慲⡹㬩瘊牡氠捹獯潟汮慯彤楴敭㭲瘊牡挠彭潲敬㴠∠楬敶㬢瘊牡挠彭潨瑳㴠∠牴灩摯氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸⁤‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤敭扭牥湟浡⁥‽挢睤楥浮湡≮਻慶⁲牴灩摯浟浥敢彲慰敧㴠∠摣敷湩慭湮瘯摩潥⹳瑨≭਻慶⁲牴灩摯牟瑡湩獧桟獡⁨‽ㄢ㘴㤱㤷㈴㨸㕤㜶晤敤〹挰㠱㈸捤ㅤ㐲㈹慢㍣㘰㈲㬢ਊ慶⁲祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯⁹‽≻浤穯㨢猢潰瑲屳洯牡楴污慟瑲≳∬湯慴杲瑥㨢☢䅃㵔灳牯獴㈥愰摮㈥爰捥敲瑡潩≮∬楦摮睟慨≴∺桃⁩慍档湩≥㭽ਊ慶⁲祬潣彳摡牟浥瑯彥摡牤㴠∠㐵㤮⸰㔱⸷㔳㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥㴠∠睷⹷牴灩摯氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤牴捡彫浳污‽栢瑴㩰⼯敭扭牥⹳牴灩摯挮浯愯浤椯杭振浯潭⽮瑯獟慭汬牦浡⹥楧㽦慲摮㘽㜷㔶∵਻慶⁲祬潣彳摡瑟慲正獟牥敶⁤‽栢瑴㩰⼯敭扭牥⹳牴灩摯挮浯愯浤椯杭振浯潭⽮瑯慟獤牥敶⹤楧㽦慲摮㘽㜷㔶∵਻慶⁲祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠朠瑥畑牥⡹㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺猯牣灩獴氮捹獯挮浯振瑡慭⽮湩瑩樮≳㰾猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ瘠牡朠潯汧瑥条㴠朠潯汧瑥条簠⁼絻਻朠潯汧瑥条挮摭㴠朠潯汧瑥条挮摭簠⁼嵛਻⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †慶⁲慧獤㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †慧獤愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †慧獤琮灹⁥‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †慶⁲獵卥䱓㴠✠瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥⹴潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣㭬 †慧獤献捲㴠⠠獵卥䱓㼠✠瑨灴㩳‧›栧瑴㩰⤧⬠ ††⼧眯睷朮潯汧瑥条敳癲捩獥挮浯琯条樯⽳灧⹴獪㬧 †慶⁲潮敤㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †潮敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲木摡ⱳ渠摯⥥਻素⠩㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ朠潯汧瑥条挮摭瀮獵⡨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †潧杯敬慴⹧敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉〳堰㔲弰晤❰‬㍛〰‬㔲崰‬搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✰⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩਻†朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹启䥒慟潢敶㝟㠲㥸弰晤❰‬㝛㠲‬〹ⱝ✠楤⵶灧⵴摡ㄭ㔴㈰㐰㔱ㄹ㘲ㄭ⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴⹧異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴⹧敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉敢潬彷㈷砸〹摟灦Ⱗ嬠㈷ⰸ㤠崰‬搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✲⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩਻†朠潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⸩湥扡敬楓杮敬敒畱獥⡴㬩 †潧杯敬慴⹧湥扡敬敓癲捩獥⤨਻素㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢ਠ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笊 †椠⡦℠獩⁖਩††੻††††敲畴湲਻††੽††慶⁲摡杍⁲‽敮⁷摁慍慮敧⡲㬩 †瘠牡氠捹獯灟潲彤敳⁴‽摡杍⹲档潯敳牐摯捵却瑥⤨਻††慶⁲汳瑯⁳‽≛敬摡牥潢牡≤‬氢慥敤扲慯摲∲‬琢潯扬牡楟慭敧Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲整瑸Ⱒ∠浳污扬硯Ⱒ∠潴彰牰浯≯‬昢潯整㉲Ⱒ∠汳摩牥崢਻††慶⁲摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲਻††摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩 †椠⁦琨楨⹳祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲਩††੻††††摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤‬桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹਻††⁽ †攠獬⁥晩愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃⹴楦摮睟慨⥴ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欧祥潷摲Ⱗ愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡㬩 †素 †ਠ††潦⁲瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳ †笠 †††瘠牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳਻††††晩⠠摡杍⹲獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩ †††笠 †††††琠楨⹳祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴਻††††੽††੽ †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠ਊ慶⁲⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠‬業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰਻椊⁦琨灯㴠‽敳晬਩੻††敲畴湲琠畲㭥紊椊⁦琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笊 †眠㴠眠湩潤⹷湩敮坲摩桴਻††⁨‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨਻੽汥敳椠⁦搨捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴਩੻††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴਻††⁨‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴紊攊獬⁥晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮楗瑤⁨籼搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴਩੻††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴紊爊瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬
☦⠠⁨‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩਻⡽⤩⤩਻ਊਊ楷摮睯漮汮慯⁤‽畦据楴湯⤨笊 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨潆瑯牥摁⤢਻††慶⁲⁢‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰਻††⹢灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦਻††⹦瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻††ਊ †ਠ††⼯䐠䵏䤠橮䄠੤††昨湵瑣潩⡮獩牔汥楬⥸ †笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤⁲‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥楷瑤⁨‽㌧〰硰㬧ਊ †††瘠牡椠䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡‽畦据楴湯
牨晥⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡戠潬正摥潄慭湩⁳‽ਜ਼††††††††愢慮祮灡牯ㅮ〳〰琮楲潰⹤潣≭ਬ††††††††砢硸潰湲硸⹸牴灩摯挮浯ਢ††††††㭝 †††††瘠牡映慬⁧‽慦獬㭥 †††††ਠ††††††潦⡲瘠牡椠〽※㱩汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫⤠ †††††笠 †††††††椠⡦栠敲⹦敳牡档
汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮⁛⁩⁝
㴾〠⤠ †††††††笠 †††††††††映慬⁧‽牴敵਻††††††††੽††††††੽††††††敲畴湲映慬㭧 †††素ਊ††††慶⁲敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮㴠映湵瑣潩⡮洠瑥乡浡⁥਩††††੻††††††慶⁲敭慴⁳‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥洧瑥❡㬩 †††††映牯⠠㵩㬰椠洼瑥獡氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫਩††††††⁻ †††††††椠⡦洠瑥獡楛⹝敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨慮敭⤢㴠‽敭慴慎敭⤠ †††††††笠ਠ††††††††††敲畴湲洠瑥獡楛⹝敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨潣瑮湥≴㬩ਠ††††††††⁽ †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††素 †††ਠ††††慶⁲敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⁳‽畦据楴湯爨来硥慐瑴牥⥮ †††笠 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥㴠笠㭽 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥⁁‽嵛਻††††††慶⁲牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳㴠嬠愧Ⱗ✠❣‬戧崧਻†††† †††††⠠畦据楴湯朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳Ɱ瀠瑡整湲਩††††††੻††††††††晩⠠⹮慨䍳楨摬潎敤⡳⤩ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠⁦渨琮条慎敭㴠㴽✠䙉䅒䕍⤧ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††††††素 †††††††††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩‽㬰椠㰠渠挮楨摬潎敤⹳敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††椠⁦⠨⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤祔数㴠㴽㠠
☦⠠慰瑴牥⹮整瑳渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵⤩਩††††††††††††੻††††††††††††††慶⁲牡慥慎敭㴠瀠瑡整湲攮數⡣⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤慖畬⥥ㅛ㭝 †††††††††††††渠摯獥慛敲乡浡嵥㴠渠਻††††††††††††੽††††††††††††汥敳椠⁦渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹⁥㴽‽⤱ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳⹮档汩乤摯獥楛ⱝ瀠瑡整湲㬩 †††††††††††素 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤‬敲敧偸瑡整湲⤩਻ †††††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩湩瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⥴ †††††笠 †††††††椠⁦渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⥝ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤⤠ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⹝慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥਻††††††††††੽††††††††††汥敳 †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳
潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝⤠਻††††††††††੽††††††††੽††††††੽††††††敲畴湲渠摯獥㭁 †††素 †††ਠ†††† †††瘠牡瀠潲数乲摯⁥‽畮汬਻††††慶⁲牡慥潎敤⁳‽敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⡳渠睥删来硅⡰✠慞敲⁡祔数∽牡慥⡟屜⭷∩‧
㬩ਊ††††潦⁲瘨牡椠㴠〠※⁩‼牡慥潎敤⹳敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††笠 †††††瘠牡愠㴠瀠牡敳湉⡴敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬愨敲乡摯獥楛⥝眮摩桴㬩 †††††椠⁦⠨⁡㴾㌠〰
☦⠠⁡㴼㐠〰⤩ †††††笠 †††††††瀠潲数乲摯⁥‽牡慥潎敤孳嵩਻††††††††牢慥㭫 †††††素 †††素ਊ †††瘠牡瀠潲数瑲乹浡⁥‽敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮∨牰灯牥祴⤢簠⁼慦獬㭥 †††椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…瀨潲数乲摯⥥⤠ †††笠 †††††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧 †††††瀠潲数乲摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲攨‬牰灯牥潎敤昮物瑳桃汩⥤਻††††੽††††汥敳椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…⠡瀠潲数乲摯⁥

⼯匠慬⁰桴⁥摡攠敶瑮潨杵瑨琠敨敲椠⁳潮愠潬慣整⁤汳瑯 †††笠 †††††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧 †††††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥਻††††††慶⁲摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧਻††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻਻††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬
⁥㬩 †††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩‬⹢慬瑳桃汩⥤਻††††੽††††汥敳椠⡦℠獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩
潬慣楴湯栮敲⁦
਩††††੻††††††慶⁲湩䙪㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥潢摲牥㴠✠✰਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸਻††††††湩䙪献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧ਊ††††††晩
⁢☦⠠℠獩牔汥楬⁸籼⠠琠灹潥⁦獩牔汥楬⁸㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤⤠⤠⤠⼠ 汁瑯敨⁲牴灩摯瀠潲獰 †††††笠 †††††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††††挠楤⹶瑳汹⁥‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††††挠楤⹶灡数摮桃汩⡤椠橮⁆㬩 †††††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩‬⹢慬瑳桃汩⥤਻††††††⁽ †††素 素
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