What else you may find on this site, besides the other material below

  1. The home page, i.e. the entry to my Chen style taijiquan notepad
  2. Some web sources on Chen style taijiquan that you may find, or not, worthwhile
  3. Information on a few videos and streams on Chen style taijiquan
  4. Something on conduct and ethics of the Chen family
  5. A beginner's glossary for quick reference on Chen style taijiquan
  6. Some Chinese characters from the glossary
  7. A reference chart on Chen style lineage in case you are looking for teachers
  8. A thank you for visiting my page
  9. A disclaimer so you won't sue me when you break a leg

Dan bian: Single whip - the Chen style way. Taken from Toyo & Petra Kobayashi 1994. Einswerden mit dem Tao. Muenchen: Hugendubel, p.20. The original source is the same as the one for the white crane spreading its wings on the web sources page, only it is fig.25 on p.78. It depicts Chen Zhaokui's presentation of xin jia yi lu.

Back to top Home Web sources Videos Streams Conduct Glossary Chinese Lineage

Other material on Chen style taijiquan

What holds for videos, also goes for books and magazines: There is no way of learning taijiquan from books. You should always look for a qualified instructor. While books and magazines have the disadvantage of not being able to portray the dynamics, i.e. speed and flow, of the movements, they are usually better than videos if you wish to check specific postures (which is when you would need to hold the video tape). Some articles and books will also provide you with insights that are more difficult to deliver on a video, and you may carry them with you, highlighten what is interesting to you, and scribble around.

Year Title and content pp. Lang.
Year Abbreviations: de ... German; en ... English; lang. ... languages; pp. ... total pages; pt ... Portuguese; zh ... Chinese. pp. Lang.
2009 From the title, it would seem that Chen Fake Taijiquan Jiji Jiangtang (Chen Fake Taijiquan Attack and Defense Skill Classroom) suggests there is another style of taijiquan, called Chen Fake style. This is not true, of course. Li Baoting, the author, in fact, describes the first set of the xin jia routine of Chen style as created by grandmaster Chen Fake in relation to its martial applications. The structure of this book is different from most other books in that it contains illustrations of the martial applications of different movements directly integrated into the description of the routine itself, and not in a separate chapter. This is not bad because having some ideas about possible applications of a certain movement does enhance the skill in performing the routine itself (as long as one remains flexible and alert enough to adopt any other useful application of the same movement as useful and does not become fixed on the respective application). The ISBN assigned to this publication is 978-7-5091-2632-5. The People's Military Medical Press has published it. [top] 238 zh
2008 All of Chen style in a single book, that's what the title of Chen Zhenglei's Chen Shi Tai Ji Quan Quan Shu implies. It comes in two volumes, the first of which contains the first and second barehanded routines of the old style, pushing hands methods, as well as the single sword, single sabre, spear, and helbard weapons routines. The first volume is organized in nine different chapters, distributed over more than 385 pages. The second volume contains the two barehanded routines of the new style, and the long staff (13 gen), double sword, double sabre, and mace weapon routines. The ISBN is 978-7-5009-3505-6, and it has been published by the People's Sport Publishing House of China. [top] 385+ zh
2008 Catherine Despeux is considered to be one of France's key authors on daoism. Her work Taiji Quan - Art Martial, Technique de Longue Vie which has been originally published by Guy Trédaniel (a French publisher who has also published a book by Wang Xi'an in French language), in 1981 has been translated to Portuguese by Octavio Mendes Cajado and is likely to remain the major Portuguese language introductory compendium on taijiquan for a while. Tai-Chi Chuan: Arte marcial, técnica da longa vida contains eight major chapters relating to the origins of taijiquan, taiji and taijiquan, taijiquan as a way of attaining a long life and as a martial art, "classic" texts on taijiquan, basic principles of practice, and on Yang (74 pp.) and Chen style (50 pp., 49 illustrations) practices. While Despeux alerts the reader to the fact that she does not have any practical experience with Chen style and therefore cannot properly discuss any aspects of its practice, the chapter in this book will still be useful to Portuguese-speaking practitioners who cannot read Chinese and are not fluent enough in English to consult an English translation. The Chen style chapter essentially draws on and translates some of the work of Chen Xin. Many of the illustrations of the other chapters are also taken from Chen Xin's seminal work. The ISBN of this well-referenced source that also contains Chinese versions of texts translated and pinyin indexes that lead to the original Chinese characters is 978-85-315-0643-7. It has been published by Editora Pensamento of Sao Paulo, Brazil. [top] 306 pt
2007 Just in time for the olympic promotion of the practice of Chinese martial arts, Chen Zhenglei's Tai Ji for Health is appearing on the bookshelf of the notorious Friendship Store, China's version of the former Soviet Union's beriozka or former German Democratic Republic's intershop. Yet, don't judge a book by its retailer in China! This volume is just what you need if you have never thought of starting with taijiquan and seek some guidance as to the benefits you may reap from practicing it. Compiled by the grandmaster jointly with instructor Yue Liming, this book, with many color photographs for illustration and hardbound, takes you thru principles of Chen style taijiquan for health (14 pp.), foundation training exercises (27 pp.), preserving energy (13 pp.), Chen Zhenglei's beginner's 18 movement routine (41 pp.), views on taijiquan from Western authors (23 pp.), a panoply of interviews with Western practitioners of all age groups and levels (21 pp.), and a more technical interview with Yue Liming (30 pp.). Senior citizens will appreciate the many contributions of their fellow age-group practitioners which reveal that Chen style taijiquan is fully suitable for preserving and increasing health even at an old age, and is not a style reserved for martially-minded youngsters. Also, the pictures depicting the routines are roughly A6 (postcard) size and thus easier to read than the often rather tiny illustrations in many Chinese, paper-saving martial arts publications. The book has been published by China's Foreign Language Press under ISBN 978-7-119-05108-6. [top] 201 en
2007 The foreword written by Feng Zhiqiang for Wang Xi'an's Chen Shi Taijiquan Lao Jia is dated 1992! Yet, finally the volume is available from Henan Science and Technology Press. It is divided into 8 chapters plus numerous small appendices (50 pp.). Chapter 1 (17 pp.) provides an overview of the origin and history of (Chen style) taijiquan. The second chapter (24 pp.) distinguishes 3 stages of learning Chen style (external form, understanding strength, spirit), the third (8 pp.) 10 main theories of Chen style, the fourth (10 pp.) 10 essential requirements, and the fifth chapter (12 pp.) explains fundamental methods. Then follow two chapters concerned with the 2 barehand routines of the old frame: first routine (140 pp., 374 illustrations) and second routine (44 pp., 170 illustrations). The eighth chapter (34 pp., 139 illustrations) explains 40 different martial applications of the jin gang dao dui movement, displaying in print the richness and depth of taijiquan, and this movement in particular. [top] 339 zh
2005 Here's the mother of all publications regarding cannon fist: Written by Gu Liuxin, indoor student of Chen Fake and well-known taijiquan advocate in China, Pao Chui: Chen Shi Taijiquan Di Er Lu most likely contains everything you need to know to learn this demanding barehanded routine. Chapter 4 of this book brings to you, on a mere 286 pages (plus one inserted depicting the geographic pattern of the routine on the floor) with only 510 figures, the gist of the second routine of Chen style. A few (supplementary) figures with partners are directly inserted in the presentation of the routine order to illustrate specific aspects of usage. The book also contains chapters on the origins and evolution of taijiquan (21 pp.), specifics of Chen style and the content of training exercises (24 pp.), specifics of and questions relating to the second routine (8 pp.), and a set of annexes (55 pp.). It is the only source I know which lists the Chenjiagou Chen family generations prior to Chen Wangting in the lineage tree (i.e. fills the usually unreported section between Chen Bu and the creator of Chen taijiquan). The ISBN of this book is 7-5009-2719-3/G.2618. It has been published by the People's Sport Publishing House of China. [top] 394 zh
2004 Mark Chen's Old Frame Chen Family Taijiquan is a very good introductory text for anyone who wishes to acquaint themselves with Chen style. In fact, I think it's extremely well written - which is not necessarily a common feature for martial art publications. It is also one of the recent publications which fill the gap in the English language book market on Chen style in that it is both a proficient text as well as accessible to beginners. You will find sections introducing taijiquan as such (7 pp.), on the evolution of taijiquan (15 pp.), on taijiquan instruction (15 pp.; excellent for those who contemplate where to begin and what to expect), on basics (43 pp.; 25 figures), on the complete first routine of the old frame (96 pp.; ca. 200 figures), and on training with opponents (40 pp., of which 20 pp. with 24 figures on tui shou practice and another 20 pp. with 42 figures on applications). Furthermore, there is a catalog of routines appended, besides notes and references. The author's knowledge of Chinese ensures good pinyin usage. My favorite two quotes are the following: "Taji is not slow. [...] Of the dozen or so forms in the canon of the Old Chen Style (depending on how one counts), only two are practiced slowly. It is therefore equally accurate to say that Taiji is fast." (p.2) and "If you plan to study Taiji, you will be uncomfortable for many years, so you should accept this without becoming distressed or preoccupied." (p.47). The publisher of this book is North Atlantic Books of Berkeley, CA, USA. The ISBN is 1-55643-488-X. I would completely endorse Mark Chen's claim that "This [book] is not Taiji for Dummies (p.6)." That's, on the other hand, not surprising because the author is an indoor student of Chen Qingzhou. [top] 246 en
2004 One of the most important innovations taijiquan has brought to the world of martial arts is a highly effective sparring exercise which prevents training injuries, tui shou. Nevertheless, if you enlist for an occasional free style or push hand tournament where you might possibly be thrown down or pushed out of the ring by another competitor, a bruise or sprain sometimes cannot be avoided. It is for such cases that even skilled Chen style practitioners, instructors, organizers, and referees should learn about basic first aid. (In some countries, it may even be a formal requirement for sports instructors to pass a first aid skills test before they are able to open any training facility.) This is where A Tooth from the Tiger's Mouth, written by Tom Bisio, comes in as a useful supplement to your Western first aid methods. Bisio presents Chinese methods of dealing with and healing martial arts injuries, some of which may seem to contradict Western methods (just as much as Chinese medicine may provide different solutions for other ailments, too). My favorite quote from Bisio's book to illustrate this point would be from master Xu Hongji: "Ice is for dead people" (p.23). The book is divided into four parts, one on principles of Chinese sports medicine (63 pp.), one on injury prevention (82 pp.), one on therapies of Chinese sports medicine (96 pp.), and one on treatments for specific injuries (84 pp.). It is generally a good read, and on top of that very pragmatic, including contents for a Chinese sports medicine first-aid kit. The ISBN assigned to this publication is 0-7432-4551-2, and it has been published by Fireside (Simon & Schuster). [top] 364 en
2003 Wu Zili has published a book which may interest those who are looking for something more to read about the flow of vital energy (qi) in Chen style taijiquan movements. Chen Shi Taijiquan Quanfa Yu Jingmai Yunxing contains 6 major chapters, concerned with an overview (8 pp.), an outline of the energy channel system (41 pp.), vital energy (qi; 34 pp.), strength (jin; 16 pp.), shape (xing; 36 pp.), and, most importantly, a graphic representation of the energy flow for the movements of the first routine of the old frame (lao jia yi lu; 109 pp.), the centerpiece of Chen style training. The (more than 160) illustrations are not as precise as that they could inform you on postures (and this is also not their intent). However, if you do know the movements and postures already, then you can easily read the flow of energy from the illustrations. Hence: clearly not a book for beginners, but most likely useful for advanced students and instructors. The book has been published by Nanchang Science and Technology Publishers under ISBN 978-7-5390-2294-9 and it has seen several reprints. [top] 245 zh
2003 His students have been waiting for a long time, and now he has finally published his first book. Germany's top representative of Chen style taijiquan Jan Silberstorff has published a series of essays on taijiquan which are instructive for both beginners and advanced students of taijiquan published under the deceivingly simple title Chen. The book contains (I) an introduction (10 pp.), and chapters on (II) the system of taijiquan (114 pp.), (III) Chen style (80 pp.), (IV) taijiquan as a part of life (37 pp.), (V) taijiquan and medicine (41 pp.), and (VI) original texts of Chen style masters (39 pp.). The book closes with a short postface, a glossary, and an introduction to WCTAG (10 p.). Despite the title of the book and the representation of the style, this is no partisan publication advocating Chen style, and it will therefore be of interest to any serious practicioner of taijiquan. Chapter V consists of contributions by Gerhard Milbrat on the relationship between taijiquan and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Frank Marquardt on the effects of regular taijiquan practice as measured with Western scientific methods (e.g. heartbeat frequency and EMG measurements). (Both are German taijiquan instructors.) The book is not a book containing pictures and an explanation of the routines. It is rather a book acquainting the reader with the principles of taijiquan so as to refine and improve individual practice by a deeper understanding. This is a hardcover publication by Lotos Verlag under Ullstein Heyne List publishers of Munich, Germany, who have been acquired by Random House under Bertelsmann in the meantime, as I understand, and the ISBN is 3-7787-8148-0. [top] 350 de
2002 Chen Qingzhou is one of Chen style's 19th generation grandmasters, trained by Chen Zhaopi as were the current standard bearers of the style. His Chen Shi Taijiquan Gongfu Huicui is an excellent small reference companion on traditional Chen style taijiquan. Published by China Publishers, ISBN 7-101-03293-1/G.477, it contains an introduction or general discussion (15 pp.), basic exercises (or, I believe, something like "Chen style taijiquan road to skill") (20 pp.), the old frame (146 pp.), push hands (19 pp.), traditional weapons (15 pp.), and biographical notes (14 pp.). The chapter on basic skills inter alia explains stance exercises, usage of the taiji sphere (10 pp., 21 figures), and training with the taiji stick (a small angled, boomerang-type device for training capturing techniques, 7 pp., 19 figures). The chapter on the old frame comprises a section on the first routine (99 pp., 260 figures), and another on the second (44 pp., 142 figures). In the chapter on push hands, there are sections on origins and evolution, traditional moving steps push hands (12 figures with sparring partner), large peng - large lv push hands (18 figures with partner), fixed step push hands (11 figures with partner) as well as a rhyme (or poem) by Chen Qingzhou on push hands. The chapter on weapons only lists the name of the movements of seven routines, including the Three-Person Mutual Staff Striking 18 Form, and two poems on the single and the double sword. [top] 229 cn
2002 Chen Style Taijiquan: The Source of Taiji Boxing has certainly been a step towards independent writing in English language about Chen style at a higher level. Previously the best books in English were those which translated original Chinese publications. Davidine Siaw-Voon Sim and David Gaffney have made a very good effort at writing as well as compiling and translating materials from original sources on Chen style taijiquan. As opposed to many other publications, they also properly acknowledge the original sources of their graphs and thus ensure that you can follow-up and check by yourself instead of implying to their readers to belong to a select few with privileged access to the inner mysteries of taijiquan. The book is divided into chapters on origins and evolution of taijiquan (21 pp.); basic philosophy and theory, including silk-reeling (22 pp.); foundations, including posture requirements and comments on common mistakes, relaxing, opening, closing, etc., the five levels of skill, and common acupuncture points that bear relation to taijiquan (50 pp.); overview of the different training methods (45 pp. minus 10 pages which mainly provide the names for the different movements of the two old style routines), push hands (22 pp.), weapons (21 pp. minus ca. 7 pages listing the names of movements of different routines), and Chen family legends (26 pp.). The book is good for beginners as well as advanced students who have not had an opportunity to dig into any written material yet that summarizes many aspects of what proficient instructors are teaching them about Chen style. It is easy to read, has a fair number of illustrations, and an index. What you cannot easily find in other publications thus far is the chapter on Chen family legends which provides you with some of the folclore you always felt lacking when standing listening in awe to the great legends of other styles' taijiquan heros... The ISBN is 1-55643-377-8. It's been published in Berkeley, CA, USA, by North Atlantic Books. [top] 224 en
2001 Believe it or not, Chen style is also available on audio tape. For those who have seen people practicing taijiquan in China's parks, it may not come as a total surprise, though, because there are, in fact, many groups that use background music to accompany their practice -- even though I have not seen it in usage with any more martially-oriented practitioners yet or people who practice the traditional routines. Personally, I do not like to have music playing because I am an avid music listener, and music generally distracts me (unless other background noise is more disturbing and the music smoothes it over). Also, given Chen style's dynamics, it may not be suitable to continuously subject your training or performance to a precise tempo. But everyone is different, and if you feel it benefits your concentration or progress, why not: Chen Shi Taijiquan Jingsai Taolu (56 Shi) (Chen style competition routine [56 form]) in the Taiji Banzou Yinyu Xielie (Taiji Accompanying Music Series) may be exactly what you need. The first side of the tape provides you with spoken cues as to when to execute which movement (i.e. a speaker calls the name of each movement at specific intervals) while Chinese orchestral music, certainly not composed for this purpose but presumably suitable and allegretto so you will not fall asleep, is playing in the background. This occurs 3 times in sequence for a total of 18 minutes. Then you need to change the side of the tape (or wind back). The second side provides the same orchestral tune 3 times in succession but without the cues by the speaker which leaves you more (emotional) freedom to practice the movements at the speed you prefer. An upside for those who practice the 56 routine, as I see it, is that you can use this tape to make sure that you perform this routine at a speed that conforms with the maximum time set for competitions without having to look at a clock. An alternative way to make use of the tape could be to teach yourself the correct Chinese pronounciation of the movements of the 56 form, or, in other words, a basic Chen style Chinese vocabulary consisting of almost 50 movements or 115 characters (roughly half of which, however, cannot really be used for anything else than taijiquan). The production planner and lecturer is Li Deyin. The manufacturing editor for this tape, ISRC CN-A23-02-390-00/A.J6, published by China Scientific and Cultural Audio-Video Publishing House, is Wang Shaowen. [top] -- zh
2001 If you are flying high, take Air China. The inflight magazine "The Wings of China" (ISSN 1003-3823, No.8, Vol.81, 2001, pp.52-57) contains a short article on Chen style taijiquan in both Chinese and English language. Chen's Taijiquan: China's Alternative Martial Art, written by Fang Wei and edited by Zhang Laiyou, is as any other inflight magazine article: High quality pictures and nice layout, and not too demanding to read -- something to get people interested. Eleven photographs were contributed by Chen Yu. Among the more interesting ones, there is Chen Wangting's poem written in changduanju style, a photograph of Chen Fake with boxers from Shanxi province, and one with Chen Fake and the Capital Wushu Society established in 1949. [top] 6 en, zh
1999 There is a book by Chen Zhenglei which is called Chen Shi Taijiquan Shu which could be considered an advanced student's compendium since it contains the main barehanded routines of Chen style taijiquan, i.e. old and new frames. (Remember that you would usually not turn to the new frame before being sufficiently proficient in the old frame.) The (clearly printed) figures are about 6 x 4.5 cm but lack the usual arrows which depict flow of movement. The old frame's first routine takes up 162 pages and 314 figures, and the second 70 pages and 173 figures. The new frame's first routine takes 171 pages and 441 figures, and the second routine of the new frame 110 pages with 290 figures. There are only very few back views. Besides an introductory chapter on history, basic requirements, basic stances, and silk reeling exercises (66 pages, 54 figures), there are chapters on push hand exercises and applications (30 pages, 74 figures), on selected martial applications from 15 movements of both lao and xin jia (18 pages, 44 figures), as well as on yinyang and meridian theory, and spiral force (35 pages, 22 figures and diagrams). This title has been published by Shanxi Science and Technology Press, the ISBN is 7-5377-1548-3, and it is possible to order it via Jarek Szymanski. Paper, printing and photograph quality are very good. There are more than 15 pages of color photographs (ancestors and Chen Zhenglei) in the beginning of the book. [top] 736 zh
1999 Ma Hong, if I am not mistaken, has actually had a teacher's background before he turned to taijiquan. Therefore, the book he compiled on Chen Shi Taijiquan Quanfa Quanli, based on transmissions by renowned Chen style grandmaster Chen Zhaokui, probably is as diligently pedagogic as his video training series appears to be. (I am not the person to give any final judgement on this, however, because I do not speak Chinese.) The book has been published by >Beijing Physical Education Press, and goes under ISBN 7-81051-222-6/G.205. It contains detailed explanations of the new frame (xin jia) routines 1 (196 pages, 298 figures) and 2 (104 pages, 150 figures), and what appears to be a collection of shorter essays (175 pages), mostly from the late 1980s and early 1990s, with numerous quotes on diverse topics, including illustrated sections on power training (7 figures), push hand application (24 figures), and twining exercises (8 figures). The size of the figures is 4 x 3 to 6 x 5 cm, and they are drawn (no photographs, except for a few color photos on the first pages). Again, Jarek Szymanski offers to supply you with copies if you need. [top] 506 zh
1999 In Chen style taijiquan, weapons are an integral part of practice. After completing the first routine of the old style, the student would traditionally turn to learning the single sabre (dan dao) routine before continuing with push hands and the second barehanded routine of the old style. (Cf. grandmaster Chen Zhenglei in the Chenstyle Journal 5 (1) 1999 in his conversation with Herb Rich.) And in Mike Sigman's view, the Chen style of taijiquan is the only style which is a complete martial art system due to its inclusion of diverse weapon routines. (Cf. his article on "competitions and objectives" in Dao,special edition Taijiquan: p.88.) Therefore, you may be interested in becoming more acquainted with Ancient Chinese Weapons, a martial artist's guide by Yang Jwing-Ming (Yang Junmin) which has been published by YMAA Publication Center in Boston, Mass., USA. It contains a general introduction (16 pp.); sections on long (31 pp.), short (37 pp.), soft (11 pp.), and projectile and throwing weapons (10 pp.); plus a section on shields and armor (11 pp.). It refers to over 130 different items. While you would never attempt to learn routines for this plethora of weapons, the book may just provide the historical and other context information which you have been looking for all the time for increasing your understanding of the taijiquan weapon routine you are practicing. The ISBN is 1-886969-67-1. [top] 140 en
1999 Yang Jwing-Ming (Yang Junmin) has translated and interpreted "classics" of taijiquan for the English-speaking reader in his book Tai Chi Secrets of the Ancient Masters. The book makes nice reading because the interpretation includes explanations of what the Chinese reader would associate with the terms used by the authors which frequently does not shine thru stand-alone translations. The book is in a small pocket paperback format. It contains the "Tajiquan Treatise" attributed to Zhang Sanfeng, the "Taijiquan Classic" attributed to Wang Zongyue, "Four Important Sentences" attributed to Yang Yuting, "Thirteen Important Keys of Regulating the Body" by Gu Liuxing, as well as the "Song of Eight Words", "Three Important Theses of Taijiquan", "The Five Mental Keys to Diligent Study", the "Song of Pushing Hands", the "Song of the Real Meaning", "Taijiquan Fundamental Key Points", the "Song of Application", the "Old Taijiquan Classic of Qing Qian Long Dynasty", the "Song of Comprehension and Application", and the "Song of the Thirteen Postures" which are by anonymous or unknown authors. The book also contains the original Chinese versions of the poems and treatises, plus a small glossary. ISBN is 1-886969-71-X. You can also order it online from the publisher. [top] 115 en, zh
1998 Chen Jiazhen and Gu Liuxin, both students of Chen Fake, have compiled and edited a book called Chen Shi Taijiquan which, according to what has been told to me, also contains strong inputs by Tian Xiuchen, another indoor student of Chen Fake. It presents the only routine pictures displaying Chen Fake that I have come across. Since the sketches of Fake are not complete, these have been supplemented with sketches depicting Chen Zhaokui. The book presents the two routines of Chen Fake's new frame and also has chapters on theory and principles as well as push hands, etc. For the first routine, there are a total of 291 figures (on 113 pages), roughly 5 x 4 cm in size. All of these depict Chen Zhaokui. For the second routine, there are a total of 126 pictures (on 62 pages), 72 of which depict Chen Fake, and 54 of which depict Chen Zhaokui. The total number of pages is 331. The book has been published in the Chinese Wushu Book Series (Zhonghua Wushu Wenku) and distributed by the People's Sport Publishing House of China, and the ISBN is 7-5009-1102-5/G.1012. [top] 331 zh
1998 I do not know of any other written publication that is available in the English language that is a better source for beginning (and possibly supplementing begun) studies of Chen style taijiquan than Chenjiagou Chen Style Taijiquan by 19th generation grandmaster Chen Zhenglei which has been translated from Chinese by Zhang Xinhu, Greg Bissell, and Clarence Lu. There are two main sections: a 43-page introductory text to Chen style taijiquan and a detailed 125-page description of the first routine of the old frame of chen style taijiquan (lao jia yi lu). The introductory text includes sections on Chen Wangting and Jiang Fa (including the frequently quoted "Xu Huai", i.e. Song of Remembrance, of Chen Wangting), main lines of transmission of Chen style, the Chen family code of ethics, special characteristics and requirements of Chen style, progression in training, hand forms and stances as well as reeling silk exercises and standing meditation, plus an overview of lao jia yi lu movements. There are over 50 figures. The description of The First Routine of Chenjiagou Laojia Chen Style Taijiquan presents every single movement of the form. Each movement is partitioned into different actions which are subsequently discussed from the points of view of requirements, internal energy, and self-defense application (to the extent applicable to the respective movement or action(s). Over 320 figures display the different aspects of the 74 movements. The book has been published by Great Circle Publications Co., but there is no ISBN. It used to be possible to order it directly with Greg Bissell, 20 Byxbee Street, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA. However, I have been told that his address is not valid anymore by Richard F. Man, and that it is possible to order the book online via Dragonsgate Production now. The book used to come spiralbound in 8.5" x 11" format. [top]

178 en
1998 There is a very nice introductory text to taijiquan, by Jou Tsunghwa (Zhou Zonghua), for students who would like to look a little beyond the fringes of the specific style they are training. The Dao of Taijiquan has gone into its seventh printing in May 1998 and contains chapters on roots, philosophy, foundation, classics, experiences, and push hands. The chapter "Roots" contains, among others, 422 illustrations for the first and 171 illustrations for the second form of Chen style, as taught by Feng Zhiqiang (with 83 and 71 movements respectively). The figures are a little small (about 3 cm high) so every once in a while little details (e.g. in the hands or fingers) get lost. But this is not a serious flaw, and should not keep you from buying it. It is a paperback published by the Tai Chi Foundation of Warwick, NY, USA, and the ISBN is 0-8048-1357-4. [top] 231 en
1997 Zhongguo Chen Shi Taiji by Chen Zhenglei may be considered a beginner's compendium since it contains basic requirements, basic exercises, silk reeling exercises, and stances (all on 23 pages), the first barehanded as well as the (single) straight and broad sword routines. Lao jia yi lu takes up 143 pages. A set of 320 6 x 5 cm pictures (plus some back views) display the routine. 57 pages and 135 pictures take you thru the single straight sword, and 33 pages with 66 pictures thru the single broad sword routines. Besides this, there are several text chapters with a few diagrams referring to history, yinyang and meridian theory, and a couple of color photographs of Chen Zhenglei, meetings, and Chen style ancestors. Printing and paper quality are fine. The ISBN is 7-5062-2626-X/Z.51. It is being published by World Book Publishing Company, and Jarek Szymanski is able to provide you with copies. [top] 388 zh
1995 There are few persons, it seems to me, who have published as extensively in English language about taijiquan as Yang Jwing-Ming (Yang Junmin) who, with university background, may also have the writing skills that are required to excel at publishing. For Chen style students, his book Taiji Chin Na may be an interesting read given that it elaborates on a key technical ingredient in taijiquan application: seizing and controlling your opponent. After all, not too much has been published on qin na in English. This book contains chapters on general concepts (22 pp.), basic taijiquan theory (23 pp.), qin na in peng, lv, ji, and an applications (49 pp.), qin na in cai, lie, zhou, and kao applications (40 pp.), qin na in Yang style taijiquan movements (91 pp.), and qin na in push hand training (15 pp.). Since qin na is an integral part of Chen style training as I know it, I was a little surprised to read that many of the techniques presented here were adapted from Shaolin White Crane style (p.47) as if there was something lost down the line. In fact, one would find numerous qin na techniques in the application sections of most Chen style publications, e.g. by Chen Xiaowang, Feng Zhiqiang et al., or Xu Guoming's respective video tape, without any need for reconstructing them from other martial arts. Yet, this alone cannot diminish the value of Yang's publication which is very detailed, including illustrations and discussion as well as Chinese-English glossaries. The ISBN is 0-940871-37-8, and the book can be obtained from YMAA. [top] 266 en
1995 The Taijiquan und Qigong Lexikon by Monika Lind and Gabi Lind (Hamburg: Kolibri-Verlag) arguably is a must for German speaking students of taijiquan. It is a paperback reference explaining terms, including specific postures as well as key persons (historical figures, masters) and concepts of both taijiquan and qigong, all the way, as you expected, , from "acupuncture" and "ah" to "zuo wan" and "zuo wang". All taijiquan styles' routines are represented. The authors and editors (Budo Studien Kreis, BSK) are martial art specialists. The ISBN is 3-928288-14-8. [top] 175 de
1994 Here's something for the more advanced students among us: Chen Shi Taiji Quanxie Hui Zong (3), or Collected Models of Chen Family Bare-handed and Weapons Taiji if translated to English, by Chen Zhenglei. This third volume in a series contains chapters on the five types of push hand training (15 pp., 51 figures); double sword (62 pp., 224 figures), double sabre (52 pp., 210 figures), and double mace (26 pp., 97 figures) routines; and explanations on paired practice (sparring), as developed by Chen Wangting, using (the tips) of staffs made of Chinese ash of a length of 3 meters (one exercise with a partner using the same weapon, 12 pp., 30 figures; another with a partner using a shao, i.e. a two-sectional staff, 12 pp., 37 figures). Annexes contain a summary biography of Chen family masters as well as a tabular one of the author. The ISBN is 7-04-004928-7/G.391. This book has been published by the Higher Education Press in Beijing. Printing quality is moderate. [top] 197 zh
1994 Standing pole (zhan zhuang) stance exercises are the key to building strength in Chen style taijiquan. Any master (and grandmaster) will testify as to that. 10 min. is a minimum to get your body structure settled before going thru the routines; 30 min. or more of these exercises, and you can build strength. Since stance exercises are not unique to Chen style, it can be worthwhile deepening your knowledge on them by cross-checking with other styles (though you can trust the Chen style grandmaster's instructions are sufficient for attaining objectives during practice). It is in this context that you may wish to turn to Wang Xuanjie and J.P.C. Moffett's Traditional Chinese Therapeutic Exercises - Standing Pole, published by the Foreign Languages Press in Beijing. I find the chapter on the history of the art of nourishing life (38 pages) very instructive because it clarifies a lot of terminology and its evolution. The other chapters focus on Dachengquan standing pole exercises (34 pages) and therapeutic foundations (15 pages). As with other publications of the Foreign Languages Press, there are usually translations to further languages (German, French, Spanish, etc.) available. The ISBN is 7-119-00696-7/R.16. [top] 89 en
1993 Shing Yen-Ling (Xing Yanling), a former student at Fujian Teachers' University and martial art teacher at Fujian Medical School has published Chen Style T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Thirty-six and Fifty-six Movements, under the supervision of Wan Peikun. The 18-page introduction (with over 60 photos and illustrations) is well structured and contains explanations of Chen taijiquan charcteristics (e.g. abdominal paradoxical respiration, shaking power), basic rules (e.g. body position, eye technique, spiral twining), and main points for practice (opening and closing, emptiness and solidness, etc.). Part 1 on the thirty-six movements runs over 62 pages and depicts the movements in 409 photos; part 2 shows the fifty-six movements over 85 pages and on 635 photos. Each movement is supplemented by detailed comment on execution. The book is No.3 of a Chinese Martial Art Series published by the Sugawara Martial Arts Institute, Tokyo. The ISBN is 0-87040-909-3. It is nicely made (photo and paper quality) compared to many other martial art paperbacks. [top] 173 en
1992 Chen Shi Taiji Quanxie Hui Zong (1) is the first volume in a series on models of Chen family bare-handed and weapons taijiquan by Chen Zhenglei and published by the Higher Education Press in Beijing. The book is organized along four chapters: (1) a summary introduction to taijiquan (incl. history, principles, basic stances, reeling silk exercises, etc.; 55 pp. with 53 figures), and the (2) old frame first barehanded (124 pp., 320 figures), (3) single sword (49 pp., 135 figures), and (4) single sabre (39 pp., 93 figures) routines. The most unique feature of this book is an 11-page/ 27-figures section under (4) which gives 17 practical examples of single sabre routine applications (in combat with a person wielding a spear). The 10 pp. annexes contain short biographies for Chen Zhenglei's uncle and teacher Chen Zhaopi and Chen Zhaokui, as well as a note on Chen Zhenglei written by another person. Printing quality is moderate, but this ca. A5 size volume takes you thru many miles of routines for being only 9 milimeters thick. The ISBN is 7-04-002418-9/G.149. [top] 227 zh
1991 The People's Sport Publishing House of China has published an English translation of the Competition Routines for Four Styles Taijiquan, i.e. for Yang, Chen, Wu, and Sun styles. Each style's section first lists the movements, then depicts them in diagrams (e.g. for the 56 routine of Chen style 268 illustrations on 138 pp.), and closes with the distribution of the movements on the floor. Xie Shoude who translated the book is an editor of the Chinese Wushu Magazine of the Chinese Wushu Association of China. The ISBN is 7-5009-0435-5/G.410. [top] 408 en
1991 Did you ever wonder what is the real Chinese term for what you want to convey to the person you are talking to or have a Chinese term you could not find a translation for because your average dictionary does not yield it? There is a solution provided by the Haifeng Publishing Company in Hong Kong, entitled A Chinese-English and English-Chinese Glossary of Wushu and Qigong Terminology. The 462 pages for Chinese-English (English / pinyin without tones / traditional Chinese characters) are organized according to alphabetical pinyin transcription and hold ca. 13,500 terms and expressions (my estimate). The English-Chinese (English / traditional Chinese characters) section holds about 16,000 (also my estimate) on 362 pages. The compilers offer a reference to more than 200 categories for better understanding, e.g. you would be able to see that "qing long chu shui" is a name for movements found in Chen and Wu style tajiquan as well as Emei Quan. Terms and expressions range from "ai" (approach), "aihaozhe" (enthusiast), "anhaiquan" (Anhai boxing) to "zuogong" (sitting exercise) and "zuonianfa" (idea-conceiving method); and from "abandon force when meeting force" and "abbot of Shaolin Monastery" to "Zen-Tantrist exercise" and "zuwuli acupoint" respectively. The ISBN is 962-238-155-3. [top] 829 zh, en
1990 Chen Xiaowang has published Shichuan Chen Shi Taijiquan, following a number of earlier editions, as far as I can perceive. The standard bearer introduces silk reeling exercises, the old frame's two routines (lao jia yi and er lu), Xiaowang's own 38 routine, plus several martial applications to the novice. First, silk reeling exercises are explained on 12 pages with 58 illustrations (i.e. 4 x 3 cm photographs). The first routine takes some 75 pages and is depicted by 397 figures, and the second takes 44 pages with 202 figures. The 38 form is displayed on 53 pages in 214 figures, and martial applications take 38 pages with 181 figures. Some figures show back views where necessary (which are not added to the count). About 20 pages are "text only". Since the whole book covers matter you are likely to take 5-10 years (possibly more) to learn if you are a beginner, it is a good investment. The book has been published by the People's Sport Publishing House of China in paperback, and the ISBN is 7-5009-0191-7/G.178. Paper and photograph printing quality is not optimal, but the content compensates a thousand times for that. It can be ordered in Shanghai via Jarek Szymanski. Jarek has also translated pp.265-267 of the appendix of this book ("Important Words on Martial Applications" attributed to Chen Chengxing) and offered it on his website. Anyway, I would recommend to obtain the book even if you do not know how to read Chinese as I am not sure if there is any better deal. And other than many other taijiquan publications, this lightweight print easily fits in many pockets. [top] 267 zh
1984 Zhaohua Publishing House in Beijing and Hongkong has compiled contributions by Feng Zhiqiang, Chen Xiaowang, and Feng Dabiao in a book called Chen Style Taijiquan which is one of the earliest English language publications of Chinese origin on Chen style that I am aware of. There is an introduction written by Gu Liuxin on the origin, evolution and development of shadow boxing (12 pp.), and there are two major parts: one on the applications of xin jia's first (68 pp.) and second (49 pp.) routines and push hand exercises (7 pp.), and another one on Chen Xiaowang's 38 form (75 pp.). The publication is rounded off with short profiles on Chen Fake, Feng Zhiqiang, and Chen Xiaowang (8 pp.). The text sections have been translated to English by Wan Wende. In the demonstration of applications, Feng Zhiqiang is assisted Zhang Chundong for 158 illustrations on the first, 105 illustrations on the second routine, and 11 illustrations on push hand exercises, not counting a few additional reverse side views. The 38 form is a solo performance by Chen Xiaowang captured on 165 illustrations. Reviewing it again after a while, I still find the book is real value for money if you are interested in Chen style taijiquan. The ISBN is 962-238-016-6. [top] 227 en
1933 This is the classic publicly available reference work on Chen style taijiquan: a book, written by 1919 and published in 1933, by Chen Xin. Its illustration also are often used in diverse secondary literature on taijiquan (frequently without quoting the source or disguising the source as any "old taijiquan book"). Chen Shi Taijiquan Tushuo is organized into 4 books (long chapters, volumes) and an appendix. The introductory book contains taiji theory and relates it to taijiquan power, form, silk-reeling exercises, and other topics. It also includes comments on taijiquan classics, taijiquan application, etc. and is illustrated by some 70 diagrams, symbols, and other figures on 139 pp. The other books are called "taijiquan phenomena book 1" , 2, and 3 which all have the same basic structure: They discuss different movements of the Chen style form, explaining their meaning, what one should aim at and fundamentals during practice, relationships to internal essence, strength, etc., and different rhymes to aid memory. Book 1 takes you thru a set of 12 movements (68 pp.), book 2 thru 24 movements (88 pp.), and book 3 thru 30 movements (118 pp.). There are many hand-drawn illustrations which help explaining the movements. However, they are not one-to-one and/ or complete representations of the set of different moves that constitute the whole movement, but focus on key aspects. In other words, they will not make sense to beginners who first need to emulate the external movements before they know what is being refered to in this book. However, it is a perfect source for researchers and advanced students, even if they do not study Chen style.

The book fortunately is now available in several reprints, e.g. ISBN is 7-80569-359-5/G.20 at Shanghai Books Press (1995). A reprint in simplified Chinese and with punctuation marks is available from Shanxi Science and Technology Publishers (2006), ISBN 7-5377-2727-9. Moreover, the work has recently (2007) been translated to English by Alex Golstein. The latter version, The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan, ISBN 5-98687-008-5, can be obtained at INBI, where a pdf format download of some excerpts of the translation (mainly table of contents and lists of figures, but also the first few pages of the different books, i.e. of taiji theory, of jin gang dao dui, of bi shen chui, of ye ma fen zong, as well as complete sections on qian zhao and hou zhao movements) is also offered, or WCTAG if you cannot purchase them elsewhere. [top]

436 zh

Blessed are those who know how to read Chinese because the last 15 years have seen a number of new publications and reprints of old works in China, as, e.g., Chen Xin's classic Chen Shi Taijiquan Tushuo (Illustrated Explanation of Chen Family Taijiquan). This here excerpt is obviously referring to the movement Waving hands and sweep double lotus, 1933/1995: p.346.

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㴽✠畮扭牥‧਩੻††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠眠湩潤⹷湩敮䡲楥桧㭴紊攊獬⁥晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤⁨籼搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻੽汥敳椠⁦搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴਻††⁨‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻੽敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ眊湩潤⹷湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮਩੻††慶⁲⁦‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤䘢潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫਻††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧 †ਠਊ†† †⼠ 佄⁍湉摁 †⠠畦据楴湯椨味敲汬硩਩††੻††††慶⁲⁥‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥潢摲牥㴠✠✰਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥慭杲湩㴠〠਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥慰摤湩⁧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸਻ਊ††††慶⁲獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩㴠映湵瑣潩⡮栠敲⁦਩††††੻††††††慶⁲汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮㴠嬠 †††††††∠湡湡慹潰湲㌱〰⸰牴灩摯挮浯Ⱒ †††††††∠硸灸牯确硸琮楲潰⹤潣≭ †††††崠਻††††††慶⁲汦条㴠映污敳਻†††††† †††††映牯
牨晥献慥捲⡨戠潬正摥潄慭湩孳椠崠⤠㸠‽‰਩††††††††੻††††††††††汦条㴠琠畲㭥 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵汦条਻††††੽ †††瘠牡朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⁴‽畦据楴湯
敭慴慎敭⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡洠瑥獡㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敭慴⤧਻††††††潦⁲椨〽※㱩敭慴⹳敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††笠ਠ††††††††晩
㴽洠瑥乡浡⁥਩††††††††⁻ †††††††††爠瑥牵敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥挢湯整瑮⤢※ †††††††素ਠ††††††੽††††††敲畴湲映污敳਻††††੽†††† †††瘠牡朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥㴠映湵瑣潩⡮敲敧偸瑡整湲਩††††੻††††††慶⁲潮敤⁳‽絻਻††††††慶⁲潮敤䅳㴠嬠㭝 †††††瘠牡瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⁴‽❛❡‬挧Ⱗ✠❢㭝 †††ਠ††††††昨湵瑣潩敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨‬慰瑴牥⥮ †††††笠 †††††††椠⁦渨栮獡桃汩乤摯獥⤨਩††††††††੻††††††††††晩⠠⹮慴乧浡⁥㴽‽䤧剆䵁❅਩††††††††††੻††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳਻††††††††††੽††††††††††潦⁲瘨牡椠㴠〠※⁩‼⹮档汩乤摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫਩††††††††††੻††††††††††††晩⠠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹⁥㴽‽⤸☠…瀨瑡整湲琮獥⡴⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤慖畬⥥⤩ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††瘠牡愠敲乡浡⁥‽慰瑴牥⹮硥捥渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵嬩崱਻††††††††††††††潮敤孳牡慥慎敭⁝‽㭮 †††††††††††素 †††††††††††攠獬⁥晩⠠⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤祔数㴠㴽ㄠ਩††††††††††††੻††††††††††††††敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩‬慰瑴牥⥮਻††††††††††††੽††††††††††੽††††††††੽††††††⡽潤畣敭瑮戮摯ⱹ爠来硥慐瑴牥⥮㬩ਊ††††††潦⁲瘨牡椠椠牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳਩††††††੻††††††††晩⠠潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝਩††††††††੻††††††††††晩
獩牔汥楬⁸☦渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⹝慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⁥਩††††††††††੻††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬੥††††††††††੻††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⁝㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳਻††††੽†††† †††ਠ††††慶⁲牰灯牥潎敤㴠渠汵㭬 †††瘠牡愠敲乡摯獥㴠朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥
帧牡慥吠灹㵥愢敲彡尨睜⤫✢⤠⤠਻ †††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫਩††††੻††††††慶⁲⁡‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨਻††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰਩††††††੻††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡਻††††††੽††††੽ਊ††††慶⁲牰灯牥祴慎敭㴠朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⡴瀢潲数瑲≹
਩††††੻††††††⹥牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯⹥楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬⁥晩
牰灯牥潎敤⤠⤠⼠ 汓灡琠敨愠⁤癥湥桴畯桧⁴桴牥⁥獩渠污捯瑡摥猠潬ੴ††††੻††††††⹥牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻††††††⹥瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††挠楤⹶瑳汹⁥‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††挠楤⹶灡数摮桃汩⡤攠⤠਻††††††⹢湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬⁥晩
椡䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡⡮氠捯瑡潩⹮牨晥⤠⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡椠橮⁆‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬戮牯敤⁲‽〧㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥慭杲湩㴠〠਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥਻††††††湩䙪献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥慰摤湩⁧‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹⹥楷瑤⁨‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻ †††††椠⡦戠☠…

湩䙪⤠਻††††††††⹢湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††††素ਠ††††੽†⡽搠捯浵湥⹴獩牔汥楬⁸⤩਻੽㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ搼癩椠㵤琢形潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬⁤㌣㌹㌹㬹瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡≴ਾℼⴭ潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠㰊湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢㰊是牯㹭㰊瑳汹㹥昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨੻††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰਻††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰਻††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶਻੽ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †映湯⵴楳敺›㐱硰਻††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤⵲潢㭸 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅਻††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬⁤䈣䉂䈸㬸 †琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬⁲〳洰⁳慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††潣潬⁲〳洰⁳慥敳਻੽昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †眠摩桴›〱┰਻੽潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁳੻††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵਻੽ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †琠灯›瀱㭸 †爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †漠慰楣祴›㬱 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃਻††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳਻††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰਻††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵਻††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝੻††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †挠汯牯›昣晦਻੽㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊捳楲瑰ਾ畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †ਠ††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††慶⁲敳牡档敟癮ਠ††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶⹲湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮
੻†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ瀮⹤祬潣⹳潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬⁥晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶⹲湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮
੻†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ焮⹡祬潣⹳潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬⁥੻†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ氮捹獯挮浯愯✯਻††੽瘊牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲⹨敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥瘊牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲਻楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ敲畴湲映污敳紊㰊猯牣灩⵴㸭㰊瑳汹㹥 †⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ搼癩椠㵤琢形摡•汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯摡牴捡⹫業楮瑳牥慩㕬挮浯振楬正敮⽷愿㘽㜳㤳∴琠瑩敬∽畢汩⁤潹牵漠湷眠扥楳整愠⁴牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩⁧牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹⹯潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡⁥潹牵漠湷映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥湯吠楲潰⹤潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯≫⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤愢彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰∠ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥⹴牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥⹴牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰‾ℼⴭ愠摤摥㜠㈯′ⴭਾ搼癩椠㵤䘢潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※楷瑤㩨〱┰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴栠楥桧㩴〹硰椡灭牯慴瑮㸢ਠ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢㰊⁡牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯⁲睯敷獢瑩⁥瑡吠楲潰⹤潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩⁧牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹⹯潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡⁥潹牵漠湷映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥湯吠楲潰⹤潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫∠⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤昢潯整䅲彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰㸢㰊晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊ